Inflammations, Tumours and Fractures

A common inflammation that affects the orbit is Pseudotumour. Most often it can present as unilateral proptosis, reduced vision, lid swelling or pain on eye movement.

Tumours that occur in the orbit are lacrimal tumours , haemangiomas or tumours extending from the brain or the sinuses. Most often they are painless and present with displacement of the eye or progressive poor vision.

A MRI or a CT Scan of the orbit is necessary in all the above cases. The definitive diagnosis is a biopsy that will confirm the pathology before treatment .
 Orbit 1
Orbital floor fractures can occur following trauma eg as a result of a hard punch on the eye or motor vehicle accidents. Common symptoms are double vision, sunken eyeball or loss of sensation on the face below the affected eye.
 orbit 2
A CT Scan is warranted to note the extent of the fracture before surgery is performed. To get optimum results it is ideal to operate within three weeks of the trauma.

Evisceration, Enucleation and Reconstruction

The above procedures involve removal of the eye contents or the globe itself. It has to be performed in eg. painful blind eyes, infections or tumours. Once the globe is absent the lids appear sunken and the socket will contract as there is no volume. This process occurs very rapidly in children and in young adults.
orbit 3

Orbital implants are used to replace the volume. Common orbital implant used is Medpor which is made of synthetic coral.

 orbit 4
There are other varieties of implants available such as silicone and acrylic. Following the implant a prosthesis can be used in about six weeks to two months later.