ISEC Sibu – Patient Information Categories – Patient Information

Patient Information

Post Operative Instructions


Use the eyedrops and medication as prescribed by your doctor/nurse/pharmacist after surgery. Remember to start your medication at the time specified, e.g most tablets are taken soon after surgery such as pain-killers, anti-pressure tablets etc.

You may be instructed to use the eyedrops on the same day after surgery or to begin the following day. […]


Keratoconus and Cornea Collagen Cross-Linking (CXL / C3-R ) at ISEC
The CORNEA is the transparent lens in the front part of the eye. Together with the crystalline lens inside the eye, the cornea bends and focuses incoming light, accounting for approximately two-thirds of the eye’s total optical power. The incoming light rays are focused onto the […]

Ptosis in Children and Adults

Ptosis (pronounced “toe-sis”) refers to a drooping of the upper eyelid. Ptosis may be only partial whereby the droop is slight usually not obscuring the line of vision or total whereby vision is obstructed. Ptosis which is present at birth is called congenital ptosis. That which occurs later in life is called acquired ptosis. […]

Thyroid Eye Disease

This occurs in patients who already have thyroid disease or quite often the eye signs are the first problems that brings the patient to the doctor.

It is an autoimmune disorder and affects the eye and the tissues surrounding it. The disease has a active phase and a fibrotic phase. The active phase can last […]


Inflammations, Tumours and Fractures
A common inflammation that affects the orbit is Pseudotumour. Most often it can present as unilateral proptosis, reduced vision, lid swelling or pain on eye movement.
Tumours that occur in the orbit are lacrimal tumours , haemangiomas or tumours extending from the brain or the sinuses. Most often they are painless and […]

Eye Lids

Ptosis is the term describing the drooping of the upper eyelid. Normally the margin of the upper lid covers about one to two millimeters of the superior part of the cornea. In this condition it is more than two millimeters.
It can be present at birth or acquired.
If present at birth it is called congenital […]

State of the Art Cataract Surgery

What is a cataract?
A cataract is a cloudy lens resulting in reduced vision. In a normal eye, the lens is clear and light is clearly focused on the retina enabling clear vision. If the lens is cloudy from cataract, the image formed on the retina is blurred causing reduced vision. In addition to blurred […]


What is glaucoma?
Glaucoma is a disease of the optic nerve, which is the part of the eye that carries the images we see from the eye to the brain. The optic nerve is made up of many nerve fibers (like an electric cable containing numerous wires). Glaucoma damages nerve fibers, which can cause blind […]


What is an Ophthalmologists?
An ophthalmologist is a medical doctor (MD) or a physician (DO), specially trained in the medical and surgical care and treatment of the eyes.  Becoming an ophthalmologist can take 12 or more years of advanced education and training.  Ophthalmologists must complete 5 years of medical school, and 1 year of internship (hospital training).  […]

Eye Anatomy


The focused image is sensed by photoreceptors located at a nerve layer lining the inner surface of the back of the eye, called the retina. The function of retina is analogous to the film in a camera. The sensed images are converted into signals that are transmitted by the optic nerve to the brain.


The […]

Colour Blindness

What is color blindness?
The human eye sees when light stimulates the photosensitive cells (photoreceptors) in the retina. The photoreceptors consist of rod and cone cells. There are 3 types of cones and each type is sensitive to either red, green or blue light. The eye sees colours when these cones sense different amounts of […]


What is Blepharitis?
Blepharitis, a chronic inflammation of the eye lid margin, is one of the commonest eye disorders. It causes a variety of eye symptoms including eye discomfort, redness, tearing, foreign body sensation and light sensitivity. It can affect people of all ages but is more common among the older age group. Blepharitis related […]

How to insert Eye Drops?

Infections, inflammation, glaucoma, and many other eye disorders are treated with eyedrops. Surprisingly, even the small amount of medication in an eyedrop can create significant side effects in other parts of the body. It is important to remember that all medicines have side effects. There are ways to decrease the absorption of the eyedrop […]


A chalazion is a swelling in the eyelid caused by inflammation of one of the small oil producing glands located in the upper and lower eyelids. A chalazion is sometimes confused with a stye, which also appears as a lump in the eyelid, but is an infection of a lash follicle that forms a […]

Sports Eye Injuries


Every year, hospital emergency rooms treat nearly 40,000 victims of sports eye injuries. All professional and recreational athletes participating in eye-hazardous sports need to wear eye protection. To help prevent sports eye injuries, protective polycarbonate eyewear should be worn whether or not prescription eyewear is needed.
The sports that cause the most eye injuries are […]

Video Display Terminal

Complaints of eye discomfort and fatigue are becoming more common as use of video display terminals (VDTs) increases. While it is true that VDTs can cause eyestrain, there is no convincing evidence that VDTs can harm the eyes.
Some people fear VDTs emit damaging ultraviolet light or radiation. The amount of ultraviolet light emitted by […]

Smoking and Eye Diseases

Tobacco smoking is directly linked to many adverse health effects, including high blood pressure, heart disease and cancer. Smoking is also linked to specific eye diseases.

How does smoking affect the eyes?
People who smoke cigarettes are at increased risk for developing cataracts, a clouding of the naturally clear lens of the eye. Cataracts cause a variety […]

Preventing Eye Injuries

Any activity where something is flying at the eye puts the eye at risk for an injury. Over one million people suffer eye injuries each year in the United States. Almost 50% of these accidents occur at home and over 90% of them could have been prevented.
Minor injuries to the cornea-the clear, protective covering […]

Lid Margin Disease

Lid margin disease is a common, persistent inflammation of the eyelids. Symptoms include irritation, itching, and occasionally, a red eye. This condition frequently occurs in people who have a tendency towards oily skin, dandruff, or dry eyes.
Bacteria normally reside on everyone’s skin, but in some people they thrive in the skin at the base […]

Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)

Pink eye, the common name for conjunctivitis, is an inflammation or infection of the conjunctiva, the outer, normally clear covering of the sclera, the white part of the eye. The eye appears pink in conjunctivitis because the blood vessels are dilated. Pink eye is often accompanied by a discharge, but vision is usually normal, […]

First Aid in Eye Injuries

The most common type of eye injury that needs immediate action is a chemical burn. Alkaline materials (lye, plasters, cements, and ammonia), solvents, acids, and detergents can be harmful to the eye. Eyes should be flushed liberally with water if exposed to any of these agents.
If sterile solutions are readily available, use them to […]

Allergies and the Eye

Approximately 22 million people in the US suffer from seasonal allergies like itchy, swollen, red eyes. Airborne allergens, such as house dust, animal dander and mold constantly bombard the eyes and can cause ocular allergies at any time. But when spring rolls around and the plant pollen starts flying, it seems like everyone starts […]

Multifocal Lens Implant

“You are 50 years of age and above, and you want to experience all life has to offer – you want to see it all, from the big expansive picture, down to the smallest, most precious details”

When your sight is compromised, your life is compromised. Fortunately, there’s a very effective solution to presbyopia and […]

My Child Squints!

Strabismus is a condition whereby there is a deviation of the eyes or squint. The term is used to describe eyes that are not straight or properly aligned. The misalignment results from the failure of the eye muscles to work together.
One eye, or sometimes both, may turn in (convergent squint), turn out (divergent squint), […]

Amblyopia (Lazy Eye)

What is Amblyopia?
Amblyopia (lazy eye) is poor vision in an eye that did not develop normal sight during early childhood. Usually, only one eye is affected by amblyopia but occasionally, both eyes can develop amblyopia. This condition is common, affecting up to 3% of all people.
Causes of amblyopia
Normal visual experience is essential for normal […]

Eyeglasses and Children

Prescriptions for eyeglasses can be measured in even the youngest and most uncooperative children by using a special instrument called a retinoscope to analyze light reflected through the pupil from the back of the eye.Most lenses today, especially for children, are made of plastic, which is stronger and lighter than glass. It is a […]

Children Eye Safety

Accidents resulting in serious eye injuries can happen to anyone, but are particularly common in children and young adults. More than 90% of all eye injuries can be prevented with appropriate supervision and protective eyewear.Goggles and face protection can prevent injuries in sports like baseball, basketball, racket sports, and hockey. It is more difficult […]

Strabismus (Squint)

Strabismus (squint) refers to misaligned eyes. If the eyes turn inward (crossed), it is called esotropia. If the eyes turn outward (wall-eyed), it is called exotropia. Or, one eye can be higher than the other which is called hypertropia (for the higher eye) or hypotropia (for the lower eye). Strabismus can be subtle or […]

Babies Vision

Babies have poor vision at birth but can see faces at close range, even in the newborn nursery. At about six weeks a baby’s eyes should follow objects and by four months should work together. Over the first year or two, vision develops rapidly. A two-year-old usually sees around 20/30, nearly the same as […]

RVO Prevention and Treatment

The previous article about retinal vein occlusion (RVO) discussed the types and causes of retinal vein occlusion. Patients who suffer from RVO may have very severe loss of vision and often have other significant health problems like high blood pressure, diabetes, and high levels of cholesterol in the blood. In this article, we will […]

Retinal Vein Occlusion (RVO)

The retina is a transparent layer at the back of the eye that receives visual information and converts it to electrical impulses which is transmitted to the brain via the optic nerve. The retina is analogous to the film at the back of a traditional film-based camera. The blood supply of the retina is […]

Retinal Detachment

A retinal detachment is a very serious problem that almost always causes blindness unless treated. The appearance of flashing lights, floating objects, or a gray curtain moving across the field of vision are all indications of a retinal detachment. If any of these occur, see an ophthalmologist right away.

As one gets older, the vitreous, […]

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic Eye Complication: The Leading Cause of Acquired Blindness in Adults
Diabetes mellitus, a condition where the blood sugar concentration is persistently elevated, is a major health affliction in our population.

Diabetes mellitus, a condition where the blood sugar concentration is persistently elevated, is a major health affliction in our population.A recent national health survey estimated […]

Macular Hole

The condition where a hole (break) develops in the most sensitive part of the retina, i.e. the macula, is called macular hole. Most macular hole developed spontaneously in the fifth decade of life and the early symptoms are increasing distortion in vision (straight lines are seen as wavy) and poor straight ahead (central) vision […]

Epiretinal Membrane

Epiretinal Membrane/ Macular Pucker

Sometimes a layer of semitransparent fine scar may grow on the inner surface of the macular region. Like all living layer, the scar may proliferate and contracts, causing distortion and puckering of the macular region.Since the macular region of the retina is the most sensitive part of the light sensing nerve […]

Pterygium and Pinguela

A Pterygium is fleshy tissue that grows over the cornea (the clear front window of the eye). It may remain small or may grow large enough to interfere with vision. A pterygium most commonly occurs on the inner corner of the eye, but can appear on the outer corner as well. The exact cause is not […]

Cataract and Intraocular Lens Implants

A cataract is a loss of transparency, or clouding, of the normally clear lens of the eye. As one ages, chemical changes occur in the lens that make it less transparent. The loss of transparency may be so mild vision is hardly affected or so severe that no shapes or movements are seen, only […]

Children Eye Development

Your Child’s Vision Development
A child’s vision begins to develop at birth. Babies at birth have all the eye structures necessary for vision. However some of these structures need further development and maturation for normal vision. Babies spend much of their early weeks and months of life learning how to see. They develop visual skills […]


Age Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD), Choroidal New Vessels (CNV) and Other CNV Disorder
ARMD is the most prevalent of the causes of choroidal new vessels (CNV). Because the abnormality affects the macula, it can cause severe vision loss. CNV from ARMD is affecting an increasing number of people as the average age of the world […]

Effects of Blue Light on Ocular Health

UV light and blue light
It has been well established that ultraviolet (UV) light is hazardous to the human eye causing cataract and retinal degeneration. UV light is defined as that part of the invisible spectrum of light ranges from 380nm to 200nm. More recently, scientific evidence is emerging indicating that near UV or “blue […]


Sunglasses are popular for comfort and fashion, but now there is medical evidence supporting the use of sunglasses to protect the long-term health of the eyes.
More than a dozen studies have shown that spending hours in the sun without proper eye protection can increase the chances of developing age-related eye diseases like cataracts and […]

Contact Lenses

Over 24 million people choose contact lenses to correct vision. When used with care and proper supervision, contacts are a safe and effective alternative to eyeglasses. And with today’s new lens technology, many people who wear eyeglasses can also successfully wear contacts.
Contacts are thin, clear discs that float on the tear film that coats […]